CST online is a scholarly resource and critical forum for studying television. It is our mission to enrich television studies by providing comprehensive access to information, as well as to disseminate knowledge and stimulate debate.

Guidelines on preparing and submitting an article for Critical Studies in Television (CST)

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Please pay particular attention to the general style notes, notes and reference and illustrations sections.

Please ensure that the style you use is consistent throughout your article and is compatible with the rest of the journal.

Submission of manuscripts

Articles should be between 5,000 and 8,000words, including notes, but longer ones will be considered if there are exceptional justifications for their length. Articles should be sent as a Word attachment, plus an abstract and between 3 and 6 key words.
•The preferred word processing format is MS Word.
•Double-lined spacing throughout (including notes and quotations).
•Pages should be numbered throughout and the last page labelled 'last.'
•Print your name, institutional address and email address at the end of your article.

Articles should be e-mailed to editors@criticalstudiesintelevision.com

General style notes

•UK punctuation throughout article.
•UK or US spelling consistently throughout article but retain American spelling in American quotes and proper names (e.g. Pearl Harbor); retain UK spelling in UK quotes and proper names.
•single spacing after all punctuation; initials should be spaced: A. J. Smith not A.J. Smith (NB, i.e. and e.g.); use a space after the point in the following contractions: ed., p., pp., ch., vol., etc.
•indent new paragraph, don't use line spaces between paragraphs, do not indent continuing paragraphs after an extract.
•if the article has more than one level of subheading, please differentiate between them, e.g. use bold, then italic, then capitals.
•quotations: extract quotation over five lines, indent with space above and below, no quote marks; should not start or end in ellipses (…)
•single quote marks for quotations integrated within the text, double quote marks for quotes within quotes.
•maximum capitalisation is used on all headings and titles of published works within the text and the notes.
•page numbers are elided: 4-7, 8-13 16-18 (not 16-8), 20-7, 34-76, 104-6, 136-42.
•dates are written in full: 31 January 1988; spell out twentieth century (NB hyphenate when adjectival – e.g. 'in the twentieth century' but 'twentieth-century television'; use 1990s, not nineties or '90s).
•years are elided to two digits: 1974-89, 1994-97, 1993-2003.
•ibid., are references that cite the title previously mentioned; do not use idem, loc, cit. or op.cit.
•apostrophe: Thomas's, Jones's, but Moses', Bridges': i.e. when the word ending is pronounced 'iz' use an apostrophe only.
•parenthetical dash: use a spaced dash to indicate a parenthetical dash (indicate in typescript by a single hyphen with a space either side).
•raised letters/superscripts in quotes should be clear – these will be set as superscript letters.

Notes and references

•most editing problems are concerned with the notes at the end of the article.
•use endnotes NOT footnotes.
•notes should contain all publications cited in the text.
•where a single edition or literary text is referred to continually throughout the article, full reference should be given to the first citation in a note, followed by 'All subsequent quotations are taken from the edition. Pages/canto/stanza/line/act/scene (as appropriate) numbers will follow in brackets.'
•please use the short-title system as shown below. Please make sure that the style you use is consistent throughout the Notes section at the end of your article, and that all source material is included. The title of books and journals should be either underlined or in italics. If the author's initials are used instead of their full first name, please make sure this style is carried through to all entries, and vice versa.

•book titles – maximum capitalisation, no quotation marks, italic.
•chapter titles – maximum capitalisation, in single quotation marks, not italic.
•for all book references, give publisher and date.
•give full details of the publication the first time it occurs; on second and for further references cite only the author's surname and short form of title with page reference.
•abbreviations to be used: ed, eds, fo. and fos or fol. and fos, p., pp., r and v for recto and verso on the line with no full point.
•author, title, publisher, date of publication, page references (if applicable).

Robin Nelson, TV Drama in Transition: Forms, Values and Cultural Change, MacMillan, 1997, pp. 1-10.
Deborah Jermyn, 'In Love with Sarah Jessica Parker: Celebrating Female Fandom and Friendship in Sex and the City,' in Kim Akass and Janet McCabe, eds, Reading Sex and the City, I.B. Tauris, 2004, pp. 201-18.
Nelson, TV Drama in Transition, pp.104-9.
Akass and McCabe, 'Ms Parker and the Vicious Circle,' pp. 177-5
Ibid., p. 176.

•journal titles – always in full at first occurrence, maximum capitalisation, in italics.
•article titles – maximum capitalisation, not in italics in single quotation marks.
•give volume number either in arabic or roman numerals (but once this style is chosen it must be adhered to for every journal); part or issue number (only necessary if each issue is paginated individually) separated by a comma (vol., no., p. not necessary), and comma before the year.
•author, 'name of article', journal, volume, issue, year published, page reference. (Note: 'p/pp' is not necessary for journal articles.)

Rachel Moseley, 'Glamorous Witchcraft: Gender and Magic in Teen Film and Television', Screen. 43, 4, 2002, 403-22.
Moseley, 'Glamorous Witchcraft', 406.

•note numbers should be in arabic superscript within the text and full size arabic numbers in the notes, with no punctuation after the note number.
•unpublished books, theses and dissertation should be in roman in quotes: type, place and date of these should be given, e.g. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Manchester, 1999.
•archival sources should use the following order: place, reference number of document, status of document, author, title, date, page no. e.g. Public Record Office, London (hereafter PRO), T235/134, MAC (52) 153, memo by C. Cottrell, 'Money', 6 August 1952, p.52.
•newspaper articles do not include the/The in references (The should only be used for The Times): e.g. Shone, T., 'Busted', Guardian, 19 August 2005, 4-6.
•unless published (in which case treat like an article from a book), conference papers should give the name of the organising body, the title of the conference the date given.
•titles of individual manuscripts should be in roman in quotes.
•titles of manuscript collections should be in roman without quotes, and the citation should contain the name of the depository and a full reference following the usage of the depository concerned: e.g. British Library, Additional MS 2787
•parts of the references may be abbreviated, provided that the abbreviation is explained or self-explanatory: e.g. ULC Add. 3963.28: the full reference should always be given at the first occurrence.
•government and official sources; ensure the correct use of C, Cd, Cmd, Cmnd and Cm, as these refer to different series.
C 1-95501870-99
Cd 1-92391900-18
Cmd 1-98891919-56
Cmnd 1-99271956-86
Cm 1-1986-
•note that Hansard documents are numbered by column rather than page; use the correct abbreviations (vol., vols., col., cols) before the appropriate number.


Critical Studies in Television prints in black and white only. Colour images are converted to greyscale for printing. For every image supplied you must include a corresponding photocopy or printout to accompany it. Originals must be numbered as Figure 1, 2, etc. in the order they are to appear (including slides and transparencies). Use a small sticker on the back of the illustration rather than a post-it note on the front as they can easily be lost and can leave a mark. Avoid writing on the back of borrowed prints. If an illustration consists of more than one image, put the number in brackets, e.g. Figure 1 (a). Photocopies/printouts must be numbered to match the originals. For electronic images, add the Figure number to the beginning of the file name. Figure numbers must also correspond to the captions list. Please indicate in the typescript/articles/captions list where each image is to appear. It's fine to be less specific, e.g. 'scatter throughout the article' or 'all towards the end'.
Originals. The preferred option is always to provide an original that can be scanned and reproduced. This includes prints (black and white or colour, preferably glossy and good quality), transparencies, slides, original photographs, cuttings, etc. It is understood that some originals incur rental fees so they will be scanned and returned promptly provided this is indicated to us.

Scans and electronic images
If you are unable to send an original (e.g. if it cannot leave the country) but you are able to scan it yourself and send the scan, you must ensure that the scan is suitable for reproduction. Scans should ideally have a resolution of 300 dpi and be of a reasonable size and clarity. If the scan is very large with a lower resolution the quality will improve when the image is reduced. A scan of a terrible original will merely result in a terrible scan. The same criteria should be applied to jpegs, tiffs, eps, PDFs and other electronic files. Non-original images can only be run at our discretion so please make finding originals a priority. Bear in mind that images copied off the Internet are rarely usable and difficult to get copyright for. A printout of a scan is not acceptable as an original. Scans and electronic images can be checked in advance of publication, please submit them to your Editor who will forward them to MUP for checking.

Line drawings
These are non-half-tone images such as simple maps, bar charts, line graphs, etc. They should be supplied as bromides, prints or finished artwork. They can also be included in your manuscript (e.g. as Word or Excel files) or enclosed as photocopies which can then be redrawn by the typesetter.

Layout preferences
If you wish to provide guidance on the relative importance of the illustrations, please indicate this on the numbered photocopy/printout e.g. 'full-page if possible', 'half-page', etc (this will also depend on the quality however). Please give any relevant information such as the importance of detail and whether any cropping should/can occur. Some photo-libraries give permission for usage on the understanding that the image will not be cropped. Please indicate if this is the case.

Please include, on a separate sheet, a list of captions for each image. These should be relatively short and the list should correspond with the numbered figures.

Please do not contact institutions regarding permission for the use of images in the first instance. Instead, bring any queries about illustrations and permissions you have to the attention of the editors.


•spell out numbers below 10, use digits for numbers over.
•exceptions – a series of numbers appearing close together; numbers in mixed sequence (under and over 100) in which case use digits for all numbers in that section; numbers giving exact measurements or with abbreviated units of measurements such as 7 kg, 15.8 mm; in usual cases like 5.00 p.m. (but five o'clock); phrases involving hundreds, thousands, millions, etc., where round numbers are given (e.g. two hundred, fifteen thousand).
•units of measurement – no 's' to appear in plural (5 kg not 5 kgs). If pre-decimal currency is used, follow this style: £5 15s 6d.
•always put a number on either side of a decimal point. E.g., 0.6 (not .6).

•when quotation marks enclose less than a complete sentence, the closing quote should precede the final punctuation. When quotation marks enclose a complete sentence or more, the closing quote should follow the final punctuation. If the source/page numbers appear with the quotation, place them in parenthesis after the closing quotation mark but before the final pull point. If verse is integrated use space solidus space (#/#) to indicate a line break.
•uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, or explained at their first occurrence.
•idem, loc. cit., op. cit should not be used.
•'&' may be used for names of companies, institutions, etc. (Faber & Faber). Otherwise use 'and'.
•cf. (roman, not italic): note that cf. means 'compare', not 'see'.
•fos for 'folios', not ff. which means 'following'.
•ll ('lines') should be avoided as it can be confused with roman numeral ll or arabic 11: spell out instead.
•per cent (not percent): use % only in tables.
•v. not vs. (roman, not italic).
•use full points after abbreviations (e.g., i.e., etc., ibid., v., Ph.D., vol., p.m., Prof., Rev., ed.) except per cent (two words).
•do not use a full point after units of measurement (kg, mm, cm), contractions (vols, eds, Dr, Mrs, Mr, Ltd: i.e. where first and last letters are given) except no. (number), or initials (BBC, DNA, GMT, NATO, USA, ICI, TV), except name initials which should also be spaced (T. S. Eliot).
•insert a space after p., no., vol., fos (p. 67, not p.67).
•no apostrophe with common abbreviations (phone, bus, pram, etc.).

•use italic for titles of publications (except series), including books (except the Bible, the Koran, etc.), journals, films, videos, plays, radio/TV programmes, titled musical works (but roman for Symphony no. 5 in C minor, etc); long poems (e.g. Four Quartets), but roman and quotation marks for short poems; titles of paintings and sculpture, names of ships; genera, species and varieties; foreign terms/phrases (except anglicised terms, such as 'elite', 'role', 'nave', which also appear without accents, and phrases which are quotations); use italic for names of parties in legal cases, but v. is roman (v. NOT vs.), e.g. Churchill v. Wilson; use italic for directions to the reader and stage directions, such as see also and above; use italic or ibid., et al., c.(NB do not use ca.), but via, vice versa, i.e., e.g. are roman.
•as a general rule, avoid using bold type – headings will be marked up later and should be in roman (use different typesizes or italics to distinguish different levels of heading); if emphasis is required, italic is preferred.

Job titles/affiliations/subjects
•the King (referring to a specific individual) but a king.
•Member of Parliament.
•the President, but a president, presidential (NB for Vice-President and other compound titles, capitalise both initials).
•the Prime Minister, but a prime minister.
•the Professor of Political Science, but a professor of political science.

•the Church (institution) but the church (building)
•the Crown (meaning the monarchy).
•the Government (specific) but the government (general).
•House of Commons/Lords (always initial caps) and also the House.
•Liberal (use cap. Only for Liberal Party or party member) and also applies to Conservative, Labour, Communist, etc.
•Northern Ireland, but northern England.
•the Parliament but parliamentary.
•the Senate (always caps).
•the State (when referring to political communities).
•the West, Western Europe, etc., but western England.

Notes on bias/gender/racial and ethnic groups
•avoid using terms and phrases which express gender, racial or other bias, unless their use is clearly justified by the context.
•use 'he' or she', her or him' (note alphabetical order); do not refer to objects or places (such as ships and countries) as 'she': use 'it'.
•be specific and accurate when referring to a racial, ethnic or national group.
•Aborigine signifies the original inhabitants of any country; for native Australians use Aborigine (cap A).
•Afro-Caribbean, African or black African etc., are preferable.
•Asian covers the whole of Asia, not just India and Pakistan: be more specific if possible.
•Avoid 'coloured people'; specify racial ethnic origin
•Eskimo: use Inuit instead
•Europe includes East Europe and cannot be substituted for West Europe or European Community.
•Indian: use Native American or Native Canadian, not Indian (which signifies a native of India) or Red Indian, unless justified by the historical context.
•North America: remember this includes Canada and Mexico; use United States if this is what is meant.
•Use 'in Britain' not 'at home.'

Tables should be submitted on disk and may be either separate from, or integrated into, the typescript. Unless the table is the original work of the author it should have a source line underneath, indicating where the information, statistics, etc. came from.

•Solid rule above and below column headings and solid rule at foot of columns
•No rules in body of table and no vertical rules used at all.
•Any notes should be given at the foot of the table they should not be included among notes to the text). Use lower-case, superscript letters rather than numbers, to avoid confusion.

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